Agreement for the Restoration of Peaceful Relations and the Delimitation of a Provisional Frontier between China And Tibet

  1. Whereas a state of hostilities arose last year between Chinese and Tibetans owing to an attack by Chinese troops on Tibetan troops on account of a trifling dispute near Leiwuchi and Chiamdo; and whereas the leaders on both sides are now desirous of a restoration of peaceful relations on the general basis of both aides retaining the territories they now occupy; and whereas the British Government has consented to mediate in the dispute; the following arrangement for a complete cessation of hostilities has been agreed upon between the undersigned, namely General Liu Tsanting, commanding the Chinese troops at Batang, and acting on behalf of China. The Kalon Lama, commanding the Tibetan troops on the frontier, and acting on behalf of Tibet, and Mt Eric Teichman, of His Britannic Majesty’s Consular Service, acting on behalf of the British Government.
  2. This agreement is of a temporary nature and shall only remain in force until such time as the Governments of China, Tibet, and Great Britain shall have arrived at a final and permanent tripartite settlement; but In the meantime it cannot be modified in any way except with the unanimous consent of all three contracting parties.
  3. It is agreed that the provisional boundary line between China and Tibetan controlled territory shall he as follows. The districts of Batang (Baan), Yenching (Tsakalo), Itun (Sanpa or Taso), Tejung

(a), Litang, (Lihua), Kantze, Nyarong (Chantui or Chanhua), Luho (Changku or Drango)

(b) Taofu (Taowu), Hokou (Nyachuka or Yachiang), Tachienlu (Dartsendo or Kangring), Tanpa (Romidrango)

(c), Lutingchiao (Jazamaka)

(e), Chiulung (Jezerong)

(d), Rsiangcheng (Tinghsiang)

(f), and Taocheng

(g), and the country lying to the east of them, shall be under the control of the Chinese; no Tibetan troops or civil or military officials being permitted to reside therein; while the districts of Riwoche (Leiwuchi), Enta

(h), Chiamdo (Changtu), Draya (Chaya), Markam-Gartok (Chiangka or Ningching), Gonjo (Kung chuch), Sangen (Sangai or Wucheng), Tunttpu

(i), Tengko

(k), Seshu (Shihchu), Derge (Teko), and Beyu (Paiyu), and the country lying to the west of them, shall be under the control of the Tibetans; no Chinese troops or civil or military officials being permitted to reside therein. As soon as the Governments of China and Tibet shall have formally accepted this agreement, all the Tibetan troops and civil and military officials at present in Kantze and Nyarong (Chantul) districts shall be withdrawn; the Chinese civil and military authorities engaging not to oppress or in any way maltreat the natives of those parts, including the Lamas of Dargye Gomba and other monasteries, after the withdrawal of the Tibetan troops. The existing boundaries of Yunnan Province and of the Kokonor (i.e., the territory at present under the control of the Sining officials) shall remain for the present unchanged.

  1. It is agreed that, apart from local constabulary necessary for the maintenance of law and order, no Tibetan troops shall be stationed to the east of the river Yangtze (Dre Chu or Chin Sha Chiang); and it is likewise agreed that, with the exception of one hundred local constabulary the Chinese troops stationed on the south and north roads shall not cross to the West of the Yangtze and Yalung rivers respectively; both sides engaging to withdraw their troops in accordance with the above arrangements as soon as the Governments of China and Tibet shall have formally accepted this agreement.
  2. It is agreed that the control of all the monasteries in the above-mentioned Chinese governed districts, as well as the right of appointing high Lamas and other monastic functionaries, and the control of all matters appertaining to the Buddhist religion, shall be in the hands of the Dalai Lama; the Chinese authorities not interfering in any way therein; but the Lamas, on the other hand, shall not interfere in the territorial authority of the Chinese officials.
  3. The Chinese and Tibetan authorities on both sides of the border shall be responsible for and shall take all possible steps to prevent raids by members of their forces or by others under their respective jurisdictions across the temporary boundary line laid down in Article 3; and will render one another reciprocal assistance in the maintenance of order, suppression of brigandage, and apprehension of evil-doers. Peaceful traders and travellers, however, shall be permitted to cross the border without interference.
  4. When the Governments of China and Tibet shall have formally accepted this agreement, all the Chinese prisoners in the hands of Tibetans, and all the Tibetan prisoners in the hands of the Chinese, shall be released and permitted to return home if they so desire.
  5. It is agreed that no Tibetans or Chinese will be punished or In any way maltreated for having adhered to or supported the Tibetan or Chinese cause In the past before the conclusion of this agreement, a general and complete amnesty in this respect coming into force immediately. The Tibetan and Chinese authorities further undertake that all Chinese in Tibetan controlled territory, and all Tibetans in Chinese controlled territory, whether lamas or laymen, agriculturists, merchants, or others, shall be properly protected, well and fairly treated, and in no way oppressed.
  6. In the event of any dispute arising between the Tibetan and Chinese authorities on the frontier after the conclusion of this agreement, there shall be no

recourse to arms; but both sides agree to refer the matter in dispute to the British Consul for his arbitration. In order to enable the British Consul to carry Out satisfactorily his duties of arbitrator and middleman under this agreement, the Chinese and Tibetan authorities engage to render him all possible assistance in visiting the frontier officials and travelling through the frontier districts.

  1. Inasmuch as the natives of Eastern Tibet have suffered greatly of recent years from the large numbers of troops stationed in the country and since now that peace has been arranged under this agreement there is no longer any need for soldiers beyond those necessary for the maintenance of law and order, the Chinese and Tibetan authorities express their willingness to reduce their frontier garrisons; and in accordance with this policy it is agreed that not more than two hundred Chinese troops shall be stationed at Batang and Kantze, respectively, and that not more than two hundred Tibetan troops shall be stationed at Chamdo and Gartok (Chiangka) respectively; but the authorities on either side shall be at liberty to take what military action they please in case of disturbances of the peace in their respective territories.

11.It is agreed that no Chinese troops shall be stationed in the districts known as Hsiangcheng (Tinghsiang) [Cha-Trengi and Nyarong (Chantui or Chanhus) so long as the natives of those regions remain peacefully within their own borders and abstain from raiding other parts, but in the event of their causing trouble; the Tibetan authorities shall not interfere with any action the Chinese authorities may take.

  1. When the Governments of China and Tibet shall have forrmally accepted this agreement, its provisions shall be widely made known by proclamations in Tibetan and Chinese throughout the districts on both sides of the frontier with a view to pacifying the minds of the inhabitants of the border after the recent years of fighting and unrest.
  2. Eighteen copies of this agreement having been drawn up and signed, six in Chinese, six in Tibet, in, and six in English, each of these three signatories shall retain two Chinese, two Tibetan, and two English copies. As the British representative has acted as mediator in the matter the English text shall, in the event of disputes arising, be considered authoritative. Each signatory engages to report the provisions of this agreement to his Government with the least possible delay for their approval. Both Chinese and Tibetan authorities engage not to move troops or open hostilities pending the receipt of the decisions of the three Governments.

Signed and sealed at Chamdo, this Nineteenth Day of August, Nineteen Hundred and Eighteen.

Liu Tsan-Ting   Eric Teichman      Chamba Denda, (The Kalon Lama)

 

Source: Crown-copyright document in the India Office Records, L/P&S/lO/714, B. Teichman to J. Jordan, 21 Aug.1918, Enclosure. Crown-copyright documents in the India Office Records and the Public Record Office reproduced and/or transcribed in this publication appear by permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.